By M. Fadhali

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2007); Vallone et al. (2008); Walther et al. (2005)). A main issue on the path of photonic quantum information processing is that the best current photon source, SPDC, is a process where the photons are created at random times (Zukowski et al. (1993)). All photons involved in a protocol need to be measured including a detection of the desired output state. This impedes the applicability of many of the beautiful proof-of-principle experiments, especially when multiple photon-pairs are involved (Bouwmeester et al.

It is difficult to achieve such high strain in epitaxial germanium. 25%. The energy difference between the direct and the indirect gaps at this condition is only reduced by 20 meV therefore the majority of the injected electrons still occupy the indirect L valleys. N-type doping can be used to solve this problem. When the indirect L valleys are filled with the extrinsic electrons thermally activated from n-type donors, the Fermi level is raised to push more injected electrons into the direct Γ valley.

The Ge mesa sample exhibits a positive inversion factor at the direct band edge (1600-1608 nm) underlying the occurrence of net gain. The effective inversion factors at longer wavelengths are less than -1 for all samples because free carrier absorption overcomes optical bleaching. The optical bleaching in the Ge mesa sample is more than any Ge film samples as a result of the lateral confinement of injected carriers by the mesa structure. , 2010). The waveguide laser was excited Germanium-on-Silicon for Integrated Silicon Photonics Silicon Photonics Germanium-on-Silicon for Integrated 33 31 Fig.

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