By R. L. Heath (auth.), Kurt F. J. Heinrich, Charles S. Barrett, John B. Newkirk, Clayton O. Ruud (eds.)

The program of solid-state detectors of excessive power answer to x-ray spectrometry, and the expanding use of compu­ ters in either dimension and information review, are giving a brand new stimulus to x-ray strategies in analytical chemistry. the 20th Annual Denver X-ray convention displays this renewed curiosity in different methods. The invited papers, grouped in consultation I, overview the charac­ teristics of the detectors utilized in the dimension of x-rays. One paper is devoted to the detection of unmarried ions. even supposing this type of topic might seem to be marginal to the needs of the Denver convention, we needs to realize the affinity of thoughts utilized to related reasons. Ion probe mass spectrometry is devoted to initiatives just like these played through x-ray spectrometry with the electron probe microanalyzer. Scientists and technologists will see those ideas mentioned within the comparable conferences. The dialogue of automation and programming isn't constrained to the 2 invited audio system, yet extends to papers awarded in additional than one consultation. the problem of fluorescence research via isotope- and tube-excitation may also be of serious curiosity to these keen on the sensible functions of x-ray recommendations. The communications contained during this quantity, and the vigorous discussions which regularly the presentation of papers, attest to the power of the themes that are the fear of the once a year Denver X-ray Conference.

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L. Heath . ~ ... Detector and Preamplifier • .... Calibrated Pulse Generator A to D Convertor +- Amplif ier .... I o sc j 110 scope Computer .. Core Memory ADC :::::> CL u e - -' 'J \. 00 Bulk Storage Magnetic Tope 00 Control Panel Function Keyboard Teletype Telephone Data Link I """"- Fig. 14. Block diagram of typical computer-coupled pu1seheight spectrometer for x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry. this system with the conventional pulse-height analyzer shown in Figure 11, we see that the major difference is the arithmetic unit of the processor and the peripheral devices which permit the operator to greatly expand his capability to perform operations upon the digital data residing in the central memory of the processor.

The electron multiplier operates in a vacuum of 10- Torr. It is designed for high speed, high gain and low noise. Maximum gain exceeds 5 x 109; operating gain is 1 x 108. The conversion dynode is flat and the ion beam is inclined at 600 to the surface normal in order to double the secondary electron yield. The multiplier anode is coupled to a 50 ohm coaxial transmission line feedthrough which is tight to ultra-high vacuum. 8 nsec and pulse width at the base is less than 5 nsec. 01 cps and maximum count rate is about 107 cps.

19. Block diagram of data analysis program for automated analysis of pulse-height spectra obtained using Si(Li) and Ge(Li) spectrometers. peak are compared with a reference list of known energies for all x-rays emitted by each element to provide elemental identification. The reference list of x-ray energies emitted by each element is listed in order of ascending energy on a magnetic tape and is read in segments into the computer for use with the elemental identification search routine. 32 R. L.

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