By John R. Pierce
Covers encoding and binary digits, entropy, language and that means, effective encoding and the noisy channel, and explores ways that details thought pertains to physics, cybernetics, psychology, and artwork. "Uncommonly good...the such a lot pleasurable dialogue to be found." - clinical American. 1980 version.
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A N D D Y N A M I C S OF T H E A T M O S P H E R E to consider only the stratospheric reservoirs. Since the mass or atom content of 90Srin both reservoirs is directly proportional to the integrated activities plotted in Fig. 1-12, we may use activities to set up the budget equations (1-25) The solution to these equations is derived most conveniently from two new equations obtained from the above by addition and subtraction, respectively: ( 1-26) Integration is now straightforward and yields a N+ a , = (a\ + a:) exp(-KsTt) aN-as=(a\-aO,) ~XP[-(KST+~KSS)~] (1-27a) (1-27b) where a\ and a ; denote the initial activities at the time t = 0.
In the absence of volume sources or sinks the diffusion equation reduces to D a an, an,/at = D div grad n , =- - r2 - r2 a r ar (1-19) Solutions to this equation for various boundary conditions have been assembled by Crank (1975). 5 A I R MASS E X C H A N G E BETWEEN D O M A I N S 27 infinite supply of molecules of substance s leads to a total flux into (or out of) a drop with radius r of F,,m = 4 7 7 w n s r - ncm) ( 1-20) where nsm is the number density of s at a distance far from the drop. 2.
1-15. Temporal development of CO, H,, and N,O mixing ratios in a fixed volume of air in contact with natural soils. An increase in the mixing ratio indicates that the trace gas is released from the soil, whereas a decline indicates that it is absorbed. In all cases shown, a temperature-dependent steady-state level is reached after a certain time regardless of the initial mixing ratio. The dashed lines indicate typical mixing ratio in ambient continental air. When this is higher than the steady-state level, the soil acts as a sink; otherwise it provides a source for the trace gas.
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