By Steven J. Luck

The event-related power (ERP) strategy, within which neural responses to particular occasions are extracted from the EEG, offers a robust noninvasive software for exploring the human mind. This quantity describes useful equipment for ERP examine in addition to the underlying theoretical purpose. It deals researchers and scholars a necessary consultant to designing, undertaking, and interpreting ERP experiments. This moment variation has been thoroughly up to date, with extra fabric, new chapters, and extra available causes. Freely on hand supplementary fabric, together with a number of online-only chapters, provide elevated or complex remedy of chosen issues. the 1st 1/2 the publication offers crucial historical past info, describing the origins of ERPs, the character of ERP elements, and the layout of ERP experiments. the second one half the publication bargains an in depth remedy of the most steps interested in undertaking ERP experiments, protecting such subject matters as recording the EEG, filtering the EEG and ERP waveforms, and quantifying amplitudes and latencies. all through, the emphasis is on rigorous experimental layout and comparatively basic analyses. New fabric within the moment variation comprises complete chapters dedicated to elements, artifacts, measuring amplitudes and latencies, and statistical research; up to date assurance of recording applied sciences; concrete examples of experimental layout; and plenty of extra figures. on-line chapters disguise such subject matters as overlap, localization, writing and reviewing ERP papers, and constructing and working an ERP lab.

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If the dipole is roughly parallel to the surface, the magnetic field can be recorded as it leaves and enters the head; no field can be recorded if the dipole is oriented radially (perpendicular to the surface). Reprinted with permission from Luck and Girelli (1998). Copyright 1998 MIT Press. 1 What Does the Polarity of an ERP Component Mean? I am often asked whether it “means something” if a component is positive or negative. My response is that polarity depends on a combination of four factors: • Whether the postsynaptic potential is excitatory or inhibitory • Whether the postsynaptic potential is occurring in the apical dendrite or the basal dendrites and cell body • The location and orientation of the generator dipole with respect to the active recording electrode • The location of the reference electrode (which will be discussed in chapter 5) If you know three of these factors, then the polarity of the ERP can be used to infer the fourth factor.

I am not a math person. I managed to get through a year of calculus in my freshman year of college, but that’s as far as I got. And I remember almost nothing I learned that year. So this book contains no calculus. It turns out that you can understand all the key mathematical concepts involved in ERP research without any calculus. In fact, everything I will describe can be boiled down to addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. If you are not a math person, you can use these four simple mathematical operations to understand things like Fourier analysis, time–frequency analysis, and how filters work.

Action potentials are discrete voltage spikes that travel from the beginning of the axon at the cell body to the axon terminals, where neurotransmitters are released. Postsynaptic potentials are the voltages that arise when the neurotransmitters bind to receptors on the membrane of the postsynaptic cell, causing ion channels to open or close and leading to a graded change in the voltage across the cell membrane. It is fairly easy to isolate the action potentials arising from a single neuron by inserting a microelectrode into the brain, but it is virtually impossible to completely isolate a single neuron’s postsynaptic potentials in an in vivo extracellular recording (because PSPs from different neurons become mixed together in the extracellular space).

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