By Paul Rivlin

"This ebook examines the connection among demographic development and fiscal improvement in 8 Arab nations. regardless of a slowdown in demographic progress, the exertions strength is expanding swiftly as a result switch within the age constitution of the inhabitants. In different elements of the area, comparable advancements have improved monetary progress. within the Arab international, despite the fact that, a number of the possibilities awarded through demographic Read more...

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32 These are not the only forms of public employment. 33 Large armies provide employment in a region that suffers from large-scale unemployment. They maintain control systems, operate intelligence, and encourage loyalty. The large size of armies and security forces means that the state has an overwhelming monopoly of force, something that limits opposition to regimes in the Arab world. 3). 34 This holds true for all types of economy: the oil-rich, the mixed economies, and the poorest. Unemployment has risen because the traditional sources of employment growth have weakened and have not been replaced.

This, in turn, limited employment growth and resulted in the paradoxical coincidence of wealth and unemployment. 48 The Arab states spend a disproportionate share of their income on the military: in 2006, defense spending came to about $62 billion. , Samih Fawzy, Denis Gallagher, and Hanaa Kheir-El-Din. “Enhancing Egypt’s Exports” in Hoekman, Bernard M. ), Catching up with the Competition: Trade Policy Challenges and Options for the Middle East and North Africa. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000.

As a result, migration from the countryside to the towns increased. Moreover, the opportunities to move from poorer to richer Arab states declined as the oil income of the Gulf States diminished. At the same time, the working-age population grew and the average level of education rose. Jobs for an increasingly educated workforce were not forthcoming on the required scale: there was a mismatch between the number and types of job available and the supply of labor. This resulted in higher unemployment rates among those who had completed secondary education than among those who had completed (or not completed) primary school only.

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