By Anthony L. Cardoza

This e-book offers the 1st complete account of the Italian Sobility within the post-unification period, and demanding situations fresh interpretations that experience under pressure the quick fusion of previous and new elites by means of highlighting the ongoing monetary energy, social energy and political impression of Italy's so much admired neighborhood aristocracy. In Piedmont, the nobles built extra oblique kinds of effect, whereas final a separate and specific crew with constrained social contacts with commercial or managerial elites, until eventually international struggle I reworked their previous lifestyle.

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156, and Bullio, "Problemi e geografia della risicoltura," pp. 54-58. The five biggest landowners in the province of Vercelli were the Falletti di Barolo, Dal Pozzo della Cisterna, Avogadro di Casanova, Valperga di Masino, and Mossi di Moirano. Some of the major landed families in the Cunese included the Costa della Trinita, Seyssel d'Aix, and Oreglia di Novello. For data on landownership, I have consulted AST, Sez. Riunite, "Catasto Francese," provinces of Vercelli and Cuneo. ARISTOCRATS IN BOURGEOIS ITALY 33 with non-nobles.

43 Such a strong feudal-military ideology had its costs. For one thing, it encouraged a certain reluctance on the part of the nobility to accept new cultural and commercial developments in the last decades of the eighteenth century. 44 Intellectual life and specialized professional training, in general, continued to enjoy little status among the great majority of titled families. 45 40 41 42 43 44 45 See Loriga, "L'identita militare," 457. I n 1776 there w e r e 5,000 aristocratic males between the ages of 15 and 60 in Piedmont, 3,000 of w h o m served the state in some capacity while another 1,000 either w e r e in training for it or had retired from it.

203 provides a brief discussion of the limited impact of the perequazione. Woolf, "Economic Problems of the Nobility," p . 277 and "Studi sulla nobilta piemontese," pp. 2 5 - 5 0 . 22 THE PIEDMONTESE NOBILITY: 16OO-1848 Aristocratic landowners not only consolidated and expanded their properties; they also found various ways to increase their profitability, and thereby compensate themselves for the loss of their old fiscal exemptions. Initially, their response took the form of a feudal reaction entailing intensified exploitation of the peasant labor force.

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